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Fred H. Hutchison Papers

MSS 124

in Boise State University, Albertsons Library, Special Collections Dept.


This collection was compiled by Fred H. Hutchison, who served in the late 1970s as Senator Frank Church's legislative assistant for environmental issues. The papers comprise his working files as a member of Church's staff in Washington, D.C., and include correspondence (both of Church and Hutchison), legislation, press releases, position papers, studies, and reference material relating to wilderness legislation, Hells Canyon, the Sawtooth Mountains, River of No Return, forest management, fish and wildlife, public lands, the Sagebrush Rebellion, and other environmental issues Hutchison was working on.  Much of the collection is in photocopy form; they are copies of originals from the Senator's general office files that Hutchison copied for his own use.  Many of those copies predate Hutchison's work with Senator Church; he made copies for his own working files to trace the background of issues and Church's positions over time.  During his entire 24 years in the Senate, Frank Church sat on the Interior Committee and dealt with environmental issues and the management of public lands. Hutchison's files offer an historical perspective of environmental matters that the committee confronted from 1956 through 1980.

Fred H. Hutchinson was born in 1953 and grew up in Jefferson County, Idaho. He first worked for Senator Church as a college intern  in 1974 and 1975 while attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).  In June 1975 he was hired as a staff member and worked for the Senator until Church left office in 1980.  The fourteen  divisions of the papers were established by Mr. Hutchison.  He donated this collection to Boise State University in 1993.

Frank Church was an advocate for the protection of the environment but believed he was accountable to the people of Idaho whom he represented.  Throughout his career, he sought a balance between what should be preserved and what should be utilized to make Idaho a good place to live for present and future generations. An examination of these papers provides the researcher insights to the Senator’s thinking and to the issues he faced. 

                Dates of collection: 1925-1980
                Size of the collection: ca. 9 ft. (in 18 boxes)
                Collection number: MSS 124
                Processed by: Mary Carter, assisted by Erika Black, 1993

A guest column by Fred Hutchison commemorating the 25th anniversary of the creation of the River of No Return Wilderness appeared on the editorial page of the Idaho Statesman on July 23, 2005.


Table of Contents


Series I :     Wilderness, 1925-1964  
                     Wilderness legislation
                     Wilderness, 1970s
Series II:     Wild Rivers 

Series III:    Hells Canyon Region
                     Hells Canyon National Recreation Area 

Series IV:    Sawtooth Region

Series V:     Endangered American Wilderness Act
                     Gospel Hump               

Series VI:    River of No Return Wilderness
                     River of No Return Wilderness: Issues                      

Series VII:   Forestry                         

Series VIII:  Fish and Wildlife 
                     Salmon and Steelhead
Series IX:    Public Lands
                     Range Management   

Series X:     Sagebrush Rebellion 

Series XI  :  Interior Committee: Issues   

Series XII:   Correspondence 

Series XIII:  Writings of Fred Hutchison

Series XIV:  High Mountain Sheep Dam Proposal


SERIES I (Part One): WILDERNESS, 1956-1964

These office files consist of writings and legislation on wilderness protection.  As early as 1919 there arose in the United States a desire to save "the scenic spots where nature has been allowed to remain unmarred" (Arthur Carhart, "The Vision Continues," in Wilderness, Spring 1979, p.4)  Between the world wars, the Wilderness Society was established to "spread the conception that the wilderness is a valuable natural resource of the people."

In 1956, Senator Hubert Humphrey introduced the first bill for the creation of a national wilderness preservation system.  After seven years and over sixty revisions the Wilderness Act of 1964 became law.  Senator Church was the floor leader for the passage of the bill through the Senate.  The papers in this series create a portal through which to peruse the Congressional activities that designated areas "for the American People of present and future generations the benefits of an enduring resource of wilderness".

The bulk of the papers in the box consists of photocopies of letters to and from Senator Church leading up to the passage of the Wilderness Act in 1964, copied later by Fred Hutchison for his own files as legislative assistant.  Articles by various individuals reflecting the vision of wilderness dating back to 1925 are also included in this box.

Box  1:   Wilderness, 1925-1964

Folder   1    Legislation (1956-1964)
Folder   2    Correspondence (1956-1959)
Folder   3    Correspondence (1961)
Folder   4    Correspondence (1961)
Folder   5    Correspondence (1962)
Folder   6    Correspondence (1963)
Folder   7    Correspondence (1964)
Folder   8    Position Statements (1961-1963)
Folder   9    Articles (1925-1962)
Folder 10    Articles (1963-1977)


1956    June 7            Wilderness Preservation   Hubert Humphrey

1957    Jan   5            H.R. 1960

1957    Feb 11            S. 1176 

1957    Feb 11            Remarks Hubert H. Humphrey and Richard L. Neuberger, The Wilderness Bill 

1958    Feb                 Committee Print No. 2,  Substitute for  S. 1176 

1958    Apr  15            Revised Wilderness Bill Richard L. Neuberger 

1958    Jun 18            S. 4028 

1959    Jan   9            H.R. 1929 

1959    Feb 19           S. 1129 

1959    Feb 19           S. 1123, Confidential Committee Print No. 3 

1960    Jan   2            S. 3809 

1961    Jan   4            S. 174 

1961    Mar 28            S. 174  Amendment 

1961    Mar 28            S. 174  Amendments 

1961    Mar 28            S. 174  Amendment 

1961    Mar 28            Congressional Record Reprint, proposed Amendments to the Wilderness Bill 

1961    Mar 28            Report Minority and Separate Views 

1961    Aug 24            National Wilderness Preservation System

1961    Sep   5            Congressional Record Reprint,  Establishment of National Wilderness Preservation System 

1961    Sep   6            S. 174 

1962    Mar   1            Message from the President of the United States 

1962    Oct    3            Report to accompany H.R. 776 

1963    Jan 14            S. 4, Amendments 

1964    Apr  10            S. 4  

1964    Jul     2            H.R. 9070 

1964    Jul   30            Congressional Record,  National Wilderness Preservation System, Floor testimony 

1964    Aug 14            Committee Print No. 34  Comparison 

1964    Aug 15            S. 4 Committee Print

1964    Sep   3            Public Law 88-577


SERIES I (Part Two): WILDERNESS, 1970s

The idea to preserve America's wilderness continued to escalate into a movement during the 1970s.  The papers in Box 2 of this series show the growth of acceptance for the Wilderness doctrine and also the polarization of opinions regarding the use of America's lands.  These papers consist largely of photocopies from Senator Church's general office files and include correspondence, position papers, and legislation.  In the midst of the emerging conflicts were the bureaucratic procedures that delayed environmental decisions. Each geographic area considered for wilderness status had to be evaluated by various agencies based on a variety of criteria.  In several instances Senator Church warns of too narrow of a view of wilderness (the purity doctrine) or too broad of a view of management (Enough is Enough).  He wrote, "It was not the intent of Congress that wilderness be administered in so pure a manner as to needlessly restrict public use  and enjoyment" but only what was necessary to "preserve the wild character of the land."

Box 2: Wilderness, 1970s

Folder      1                   Salmon Wilderness Study (1972)
Folder      2                   Outfitters (1974)
Folder      3                   Salmon River Breaks, Primitive Area (1974)
Folder      4                   The Purity Doctrine (1975-1976)
Folder      5                   Salmon National Forest, Beartrap-Dutchler Unit (1976)
Folder      6                   News Clippings (1976-1978)
Folder      7                   "America's Wilderness Heritage" (1977)
Folder      8                   Articles (1977)
Folder      9                   Correspondence (1977)
Folder    10                   "Enough's Enough" (1977)
Folder    11                   Interview On Wilderness (1977)
Folder    12                   Natural Diversity Act (1977)
Folder    13                   Public Participation and Attitudes (1977)
Folder    14                   Salmon River Wilderness Proposal Cecil Andrus  (1977)
Folder    15                   "Wilderness in a Balanced Land Use" (1977)
Folder    16                   Economics of Wilderness Perservation (1978)
Folder    17                   Idaho Survey, Use of Natural Resources (1978)
Folder    18                   Man, Nature and Wilderness (1978)
Folder    19                   National Wilderness Registry (1978)
Folder    20                   RARE II, Mineral Potential (1978)
Folder    21                   Salmon River Breaks, Primitive Area (1978)
Folder    22                   S. Con. Res. 65, Roadless Areas (1978)
Folder    23                   "Wood and Wilderness" (1978)
Folder    24                   Report 96-617, National Wilderness Preservation System (1979)
Folder    25                   Correspondence (1980)
Folder    26                    Grazing (1980)
Folder    27                   Legislation (1980)


Senator's Church's concern with the destruction of the environment included America's rivers.  He saw a need to preserve "free flowing rivers that possess unique water conservation, scenic, fish, wildlife, and outdoor recreation values of present and potential benefit to the American people."  Church supported the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act along with the Wilderness Act of 1964 in order to keep a small portion of the country as our ancestors found it.  The Clearwater and the Salmon rivers of Idaho were the first waterways mentioned in the initial act. Their inclusion, by the Senator, in the bill was based on a need to prohibit dam construction that would inhibit the spawning of anadromous fish from the Pacific.  Later Church encouraged the inclusion of additional rivers or portions of rivers within Idaho, such as the Bruneau, Priest, and the St. Joe. 

Box 2: Wild Rivers

Folder     28                   Salmon River Preservation Bill (1960-1963)
Folder     29                   Correspondence (1965-1966)
Folder     30                   Idaho Rivers (1965)
Folder     31                   S.1446 (1965-1966)
Folder     32                   Senator Church's Remarks (1965-1966)

Box 3: Wild Rivers

Folder      1                   Salmon River Proposal (1965)
Folder      2                   Position Statements (1965)
Folder      3                   News Articles (1965)
Folder      4                   S.119, Report (1967)
Folder      5                   Public Law 90-542 (1968)
Folder      6                   Bruneau River (1976-1977)
Folder      7                   Amendment Recommendations (1977)
Folder      8                   Publications (1975-1978)
Folder      9                   Research Abstracts (1976)
Folder    10                   "Wilderness and Natural Areas" Congressional Research Service (1975)
Folder    11                   "Wild and Scenic Rivers" Outdoor Recreation Action (1977)
Folder    12                   "Flowing Free" River Conservation Fund (1977)
Folder    13                   "Federal Protection And Preservation of Wild and Scenic Rivers  is Slow and Costly”,  
                                        General Accounting Office (1978)



One of the earliest speeches Frank Church delivered on the Senate floor (March 7, 1957) was in support of the construction of the Hells Canyon Dam.   Church stated that "water is the life-blood of our economy in Idaho".  The speech summarized his support of the building of the dam for the "development of our great rivers -- a tradition that has served the people well and contributed much to the building of west."  The papers in the series reflect Senator Church's envolving view on dam contruction in Hells Canyon region.

The question is continuously raised in this series as to the types of dams to be built, the size, the costs, as well as who should build them, control them, and benefit from them.  During the 1960s opposition to the construction of dams increased based on environmental issues. As the country entered the 1970s, the perception of Hells Canyon began to include environmental considerations.  A moratorium on dam building was proposed by Secretary of Interior Walter J. Hickel in 1969 to restrict the uses of the Snake River.  Senators Church and Len B. Jordan introduced legislation in 1970 supporting such a moratorium for a ten year period to evaluate the needs of users.

Box 3:  Hells Canyon Region

Folder     14                   Hells Canyon (1957)
Folder     15                   Dam Legislation (1957)
Folder     16                   Dam Proposals (1963-1964)
Folder     17                   High Mountain Sheep Dam (1964-1967)
Folder     18                   Publications (1971)
Folder     19                   Snake River Dam Survey (1971)
Folder     20                   Legislation (1969-1971)
Folder     21                   Moratorium (1968-1971)
Folder     22                   Moratorium; Correspondence (1968-1972)
Folder     23                   Moratorium; Packwood Legislation (1971-1973)

 Box 4:  Hells Canyon Region

Folder       1                  Moratorium; Federal Power Commission (1971)
Folder       2                   Moratorium; Organizational Correspondence,  1971-1972
Folder       3                   Moratorium; State of Idaho (1971-1972)
Folder       4                  News Articles (1971; 1973)




The Hells Canyon Recreation Area was created to establish a balance in land, water, and recreation uses of the area.  In 1973 Frank Church proposed a bill that would provide permanent protection for the Middle Snake River and the Hells Canyon area, stating that the people can no longer look at any region with tunnel vision.  The bill was to create a Hells Canyon wilderness area on the undeveloped portion of the Middle Snake and to protect upstream water rights and grazing practices.

Box 4:   Hells Canyon National Recreation Area

Folder      5              News Releases (1972-1973)
Folder      6              Len B. Jordan remarks (1973)
Folder      7              Correspondence (1975)
Folder      8              Public Law, 94-199 (1975)
Folder      9              Publications (1977)
Folder    10              Hells Canyon National Recreation Area  (1977-1979)
Folder    11              Map



The Sawtooth mountain range of central Idaho is as remarkable and as pristine as any in America.  The question posed in these files is what to do to assure it remaining so.  Should it  be declared a wilderness, a national park, or a national recreation area?  Emotions were aroused when such considerations touched the income of miners, ranchers, and others who would be directly effected by such designations.  Intense debates and arguments ensued as determination studies persisted during the 1960s and early 1970s.  Evidence of management disputes are found in the photocopies of the correspondence concerning this subject.

To the east of Idaho's Sawtooths are the White Cloud Peaks.  This locale is similar to the Sawtooths and engendered the same heated discussions about their use.  Senator Church included both regions in his Sawtooth National Recreation Area legislation.  In his speech to the Senate, Church described it as "America's Alps."  The region was declared a National Recreation Area on August 22, 1972, after several compromises between conservationists and land users.  However, contention over the issue of management materializes still in the 1990s.

Box 4:   Sawtooth Region

Folder     12                   Articles  (1960)
Folder     13                   Legislative Activity  (1960-1963)
Folder     14                   Intra-Office Activity  (1963-1964)
Folder     15                   Statements and Articles  (1963)
Folder     16                   Correspondence  (1963)
Folder     17                   Publications  (1963; 1971-1973)
Folder     18                   “In Idaho's White Clouds"  (nd) 

Box 4:   Sawtooth National Recreation Area

Folder     19                   Senator Church's Position  (1969-1971)
Folder     20                   Public Opinions  (1970-1971)
Folder     21                   H.R. 6957, Language  (1971)
Folder     22                   Legislative Activity  (1971-1972)
Folder     23                   Correspondence  (1971;1976) 

Box 5:   Sawtooth National Recreation Area

Folder       1                   Position Papers  (1972)
Folder       2                   News Articles  (1971-1976)

Box 5:   Sawtooth National Park
Folder       3                   Study Report and Plan  (1975)


This series documents Senator Frank Church's role as a leader in the effort to pass the Endangered American Wilderness Act, 1977-1978, and Fred Hutchison's work as his legislative assistant in that effort. The original intent of the Endangered American Wilderness Bill was to target specific public lands for protection under the Wilderness Act of 1964.  It was introduced at the request of the Sierra Club in response to the National Forest Management Act of 1976 that would jeopardize lands that had de facto wilderness status but no specific legislative protection.  This new legislation permitted Congress to designate specific areas for wilderness status.  In his discussion of the bill, Senator Church encouraged Congress to do long‑range thinking in regards to wilderness, stating that there should not be  blanket decisions made for wilderness or utilization of any public lands.  Often given the name Omnibus Bill, this bill was, in Church's opinion the most significant conservation measure to be acted upon during the Carter Administration.  Church saw the necessity for Congressional intervention as he regarded the Forest Service's narrow perspective as not being in tune with the original intent of the Wilderness Act. The bill was passed in 1978.


Box 5: Endangered American Wilderness Act of 1978

Folder     4                   Background Material (1976)
Folder     5                   Legislative Assistant: Notes (nd)
Folder     6                   H.R. 1907 (1977)
Folder     7                   S.1180 (1977)
Folder     8                   Opening Statement (1977)
Folder     9                   Introduction; News Releases (1977)
Folder   10                   Opposition (1977)
Folder   11                   Area Checklist (1977)
Folder   12                   Subcommittee Hearing (1977)
Folder   13                   H.R.3454 (1977)
Folder   14                   H.R.3454; Section Analysis (1977)
Folder   15                   H.R.3454; Amendments (1977)
Folder   16                   California Golden Trout (1977)
Folder   17                   Lone Peak Wilderness, Utah Proposal (1977)
Folder   18                   Correspondence (1977)
Folder   19                   Committee; Proxies (1977)
Folder   20                   Committee Report (1977)
Folder   21                   Conference; Strategy (1977)
Folder   22                   Conference; Summary of Areas (1977)
Folder   23                   Conference; Issues (1977)
Folder   24                   Conference; Issues; Staff Recommendations (1977)
Folder   25                   Conference; Issues; California Golden Trout (1977)
Folder   26                   Conference; Issues; Golden Trout Compromise  (1977)
Folder   27                   Conference; Issues; Hunter-Fryingpan Area,  Colorado (1977)
Folder   28                   Conference; Issues; Kalmiopsis, Oregon  (1977)
Folder   29                   Conference; Issues; Welcome Creek, Montana  (1977)
Folder   30                   Conference; Issues; Wenaha-Tucannon, Washington/Oregon (1977)
Folder   31                   Conference; Issues; Zig-Zag [Mt. Hood], Oregon (1977)
Folder   32                   Conference: Issue Resolutions (1977)
Folder   33                   Conference: Report to House (1977)
Folder   34                   Conference: Correspondence (1977)
Folder   35                   Conference Report: House Vote (1977)
Folder   36                   Conference: Notes (1977)
Folder   37                   Conference: Proxies (1977)
Folder   38                   Senate Floor Checklist (1978)
Folder   39                   Senate Vote (1978)
Folder   40                   Public Law 95-237 (1978)
Folder   41                   News Releases (1978)
Folder   42                   "Wilderness in a Balanced Land Use Framework”  (1977)
Folder   43                   "Wilderness: the Challenge of Stewardship"  (1977)




The Gospel Hump region of Idaho's Nez Perce Forest was desired by both environmentalists and developers for their own exclusive purposes.  At the initiative of Grangeville, Idaho, civic leaders a task force composed of contending special interest groups was formed. The Natural Resources Task Force was established to resolve the stalemate at the local level. In March of 1977, a compromise plan of conservation and utilization was achieved for Frank Church to present to Congress.  The path to this compromise and the compromises that followed can be found in these files.  A significant folder, Maps, illustrates the many and varied boundaries that were considered for the Gospel Hump Wilderness Area.  Church constantly stressed that the most significant part of the this legislation was that the thrust for resolution came from the local level and he hoped that this would be the strategy for deciding future conflicts.


Box 5:   Gospel Hump

Folder     44                   Nez Perce National Forest Land Use Plan  (1976)
Folder     45                   Nez Perce National Forest Vehicle Travel Map (1976)
Folder     46                   Forest Service Regulations (1977)

Box 6:   Gospel Hump

Folder       1                   Correspondence (1977)
Folder       2                   Intra-Office Material (1977)
Folder       3                   Chronological Planning Outline (1977)
Folder       4                   Conservationists' Proposal (1977)
Folder       5                   Designation of Area (1977)

Folder       6                   Idaho Fish and Game (1977)
Folder       7                   Fisheries and Big Game Study Proposal (1977)
Folder       8                   Forest Service: Boundary Concerns (1977)
Folder       9                   Forest Service; Public Involvement (1977)
Folder     10                   Grangeville Chamber of Commerce;  Correspondence (1977)
Folder     11                   Idaho Mining Association; Correspondence (1977)
Folder     12                   Maps (1977)
Folder     13                   Meadow Creek (1977)
Folder     14                   Mill Creek Unit (1976)
Folder     15                   Mill Creek and Rainy Day Appeals (1977)
Folder     16                   Mining Claims (1977)
Folder     17                   Resources Data (1977)
Folder     18                   Off Road Vehicles (1977)
Folder     19                   Snowmobiles (1977)
Folder     20                   Roadless Areas (1977)
Folder     21                   Water Quality, Elk and Moose Habitat (1977)
Folder     22                   Wildlife Management (1977)
Folder     23                   Southeast Boundary Dispute (1977)
Folder     24                   Tour Information Package (1977)
Folder     25                   Secretary of Agriculture Report (1977)
Folder     26                   University of Idaho, Forestry College, Information (1977)
Folder     27                   Newspaper Articles (1977)
Folder     28                   News Releases (1977)
Folder     29                   Value of Area (1977)
Folder     30                   Report Language (1977)
Folder     31                   Original Bill (1977)
Folder     32                   Speeches (Senate) (1977)
Folder     33                   S.1180 (1977)
Folder     34                   Language for Amendment (1977)
Folder     35                   S.1180 Amendments (1977)
Folder     36                   S.2035 (1977)
Folder     37                   S.2051 (1977)
Folder     38                   S.2035 (1977)
Folder     39                   Compromise (1977)
Folder     40                   Area Report List (1977)
Folder     41                   Final Analysis (1977)
Folder     42                   Explanation of the Area (1977)
Folder     43                   Correspondence (1978)
Folder     44                   Forest Service, Activity Summary (1980)




The Salmon River, also known as the River of No Return was perceived by Senator Church as the heart of wilderness in Idaho.  Its rugged unspoiled landscape creates a protected realm for abundant wildlife.  The territory furnishes the life-waters to the free flowing Salmon.  Its limited timber productivity made it a natural candidate for wilderness status.  The designation did not come easily, however.  Legislation was originated by an Idaho grassroots organization headed by Ted Trueblood and Ernie Day.  The Carter Administration, under the direction of Secretary of the Interior Cecil Andrus,  proposed its own bill, as did the Forest Service.  It took five major bills, numerous amendments and countless hours of mediation over a three year period for the Central Idaho Wilderness Act to become a reality.

Senator Church strived to save “the last best part of the west” and in 1984 he was honored for his work when Congress changed the name of the area to the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness. 

"Senator Church was determined to find a way to protect the magnificent resources of the area at the same  time protect the effected local economics.  He  accomplished this task admirably and throughout demonstrated his characteristic fairness and extensive knowledge of the subject matter.  [He] was truly the father of the River of No Return Wilderness."

                             Senator Dale Bumpers,  March 1, 1984


Box 7: River of No Return Wilderness

Folder       1            Idaho Primitive Area (1975)
Folder       2            Development of Legislation (1975-1977)
Folder       3            "Can Idaho's River of No Return Wilderness be Saved?" (1977)
Folder       4            Correspondence (1977-1978)
Folder       5            Articles (1977-1978)
Folder       6            Council's Legislation, Background (1978)
Folder       7            Council's Proposed Legislation (1978)
Folder       8            Council's Bill Revisions (1978)
Folder       9            S.2494, Background (1978)
Folder     10            S.2494 (1978)
Folder     11            S.2494, Introduction (1978)
Folder     12            Forest Information (1978)
Folder     13            News Clippings (1978)
Folder     14            Correspondence (1979)
Folder     15            News Releases (1979)
Folder     16            Public Opinions (1979)
Folder     17            Organizations' Opinions (1979)
Folder     18            Photos of Environmental Damage (1979)
Folder     19            S.95, River of No Return Wilderness (1979)
Folder     20            S.95, Request for Introduction (1979)
Folder     21            S.95, Church's Introductory Statements (1979)
Folder     22            S.95, Statement of Support (1979)
Folder     23            S.96, Support for Introduction (1979)
Folder     24            S.96, Central Idaho Wilderness and Management Act (1979)
Folder     25            Forest Service, Wilderness Management (1979)
Folder     26            S.97, Presidential Statement (1978)
Folder     27            S.97, River of No Return Wilderness (1979)
Folder     28            S.97, Bill Summary (1979)
Folder     29            Comparison of Proposals, S.95, S.96, & S.97  (1979)
Folder     30            Comparison, Timber Supplies (1979)
Folder     31            Idaho State Resource Agencies Reports (1979)
Folder     32            Statesman Article, (May 20, 1979)
Folder     33            Public Hearings, Itinerary (1979)
Folder     34            Public Hearings, Salmon, Idaho (1979)
Folder     35            Public Hearings, Boise, Idaho (1979)
Folder     36            Public Hearings, Boise, Idaho Governor John Evans (1979)
Folder     37            Public Hearings, Lewiston, Idaho (1979)
Folder     38            Public Hearings, Washington, D. C. (1979)
Folder     39            Public Hearings, Washington, D. C. Testimony (1979)


Box 8: River of No Return Wilderness

Folder       1      Congressional Correspondence (1979)
Folder       2      S.2009, Drafts (1979)
Folder       3      S.2009, Drafts (1979)
Folder       4      S.2009, Final Draft (1979)
Folder       5      S.2009, River of No Return Wilderness (1979)
Folder       6      S.2009, Additional Views (1979)
Folder       7      Support Material Central Idaho Wilderness  (1979)
Folder       8      S.2009, McClure Amendment (1979)
Folder       9      S.2009, Amendments (1979)
Folder     10      S.2009, House Version (1979)
Folder     11      Idaho Omnibus Wilderness Bill (1979)
Folder     12      Subcommittee Hearings (1979)
Folder     13      "What it Means for Idaho" (1979)
Folder     14      Rebuttal to Steve Symms (1979)
Folder     15      Idaho Wildlife Federation, Address (1979)
Folder     16      Ernie Day (1979)
Folder     17      Committee, Proxy Vote (1979)
Folder     18      S.2009, Report (1979)
Folder     19      S.2009, Senate Vote (1979)
Folder     20      Article for Open Space (1979)
Folder     21      H.R.5711, Central Idaho Wilderness (1979)
Folder     22      Committee, Salmon River Changes (1979)
Folder     23      Committee, Boundary Differences (1979)
Folder     24      Committee, RARE II (1979)
Folder     25      Committee Report, Components (1979)
Folder     26      Committee Findings (1979)
Folder     27      Committee Report (1980)


Box 9: River of No Return Wilderness

Folder       1      Correspondence (1979-1980)
Folder       2      Central Idaho Wilderness Act, Opposition (1979)
Folder       3      Central Idaho Wilderness Act (1980)
Folder       4      Legal Opinions (1980)
Folder       5      Idaho, Legislative Reaction (1980)
Folder       6      House Vote, Staff Memos (1980)
Folder       7      House Vote (1980)
Folder       8      Joint Conference (1980)
Folder       9      Cultural Resources Management (1980)
Folder     10      Public Opinion (1980)
Folder     11      Central Idaho Wilderness Act (1980)
Folder     12      Signing Statement (1980)
Folder     13      Map (1980)
Folder     14      News Releases (1979-1980)
Folder     15      Timber Meeting (1980)
Folder     16      History of Legislation (1980)
Folder     17      Summary (1980)



These files document specific issues and areas of  contention in the debate over the creation of the River of No Return Wilderness.  A major clash of interests occurred in the Clear Creek controversy which involved the mining of cobalt, a mineral necessary for the construction of the country's defense systems.  Idaho has the most significant  reserves in the world.  Other sources were Zaire and the Soviet Union (not an option during the Cold War).  A special mining zone with a restrictive management policy  was created as part of the legislation.  "We must reject the idea that prudent mining and wildlife management can't coexist" stated Idaho's other Senator, James McClure.


Box 9: River of No Return: Issues

Folder     18       Aircraft Landings (1979)
Folder     19       Boat Use (1978-1979)
Folder     20       Boundaries, Maps (1978)
Folder     21       Outfitters (1977)
Folder     22       Cabin Burnings (1976-1978)
Folder     23       Historic Structures (1979)
Folder     24       Mackay Bar (1979)
Folder     25       Mining Leases (1977)
Folder     26       Sulphur Creek (1979)
Folder     27       Timber Supplies, Salmon Idaho (1979)
Folder     28       Clear Creek Controversy, Map (1979)
Folder     29       Clear Creek Controversy, Cobalt Mining (1979)
Folder     30       Clear Creek Controversy, Cobalt Mining (1980)

Box 10: River of No Return Wilderness

Folder       1        Clear Creek Controversy, Cobalt Mining (Background (1979)
Folder       2        Clear Creek Controversy, Cobalt Mining Government Information (1979)
Folder       3        Clear Creek Controversy, Mining (1979)
Folder       4        Clear Creek Controversy, Environmental Concerns (1979)
Folder       5        Clear Creek Controversy, Wildlife (1979)
Folder       6        Clear Creek Controversy, Notes (1979)
Folder       7        Clear Creek Controversy, Alternative Resolutions (1979)
Folder       8        Magruder Corridor (1967)
Folder       9        Magruder Corridor (1971)
Folder     10        Magruder Corridor (1971)
Folder     11        Magruder Corridor, Selway/Bitterroot (1977)
Folder     12        Magruder Corridor, Selway/Bitterroot (1979)
Folder     13        Magruder Corridor, Maps (1979)
Folder     14        Nez Perce Forest, Environmental Concerns  (1979)
Folder     15        Nez Perce Forest, Forest Industry (1979)
Folder     16        Nez Perce Forest, Wildlife Concerns (1979)
Folder     17        Roadless Areas (1979)
Folder     18        Thunder Mountain Corridor (1979)
Folder     19        Warner Planning Unit (1979)


The United States Forest Service is under the direction of the Department of Agriculture and often in rivalry with the Department of the Interior and the Interior Committee with the respect to management of America's public lands.  Yet the Forest Service set the precedent in creating wilderness areas in 1924 by labeling the roadless areas of the Gila National Forest in New Mexico as a “permanent forest.”  The Service, through the 1930s and 1940s, continued to designate lands as "primitive" to remain pristine.  Mass mechanization of the logging industry, demands for housing timber, and increased demand for hydropower in post World War II America threatened areas with no legislative protection. The Service became caught in the middle between commercial and preservation interests.  Adding to the confusion was the Congressional involvement in the decision making process.

By the 1970s, America's forests were ensnarled in a cumbersome process of bureaucracy.  These files of Senator Church and legislative aide Fred Hutchison focus on that period of discord.  Church emphasized that the Forest Service had three primary responsibilities: to assure the perpetuation of the forests, to plan for future forest use, and to provide for balanced usage.


Box 10: Forestry

Folder     20                   University View of Forest Service (1970)
Folder     21                   Idaho Forests (1972)
Folder     22                   Roadless Areas; Sierra Club Law Suit (1972)
Folder     23                   Exports (1973-1977)

Box 11: Forestry

Folder       1                   Nez Perce Land Use (1975)
Folder       2                   Nez Perce Land Use: Appendix (1975)
Folder       3                   National Forest Management Act (1976)
Folder        4                   Forest Practices (1976-1977)
Folder       5                   Forestry (1976-1978)
Folder       6                   Clearcutting (1977)
Folder       7                   Economics of Forestry (1977)
Folder       8                   Federal Forest Policy; Balance, Foresight, Stewardship (1977)
Folder       9                   Housing Considerations (1977)
Folder     10                   Timber Bidding, Forest Service Information (1977)
Folder     11                   Appropriations (1977-1978)
Folder     12                   Rare II (1977-1978)

Box  12: Forestry

Folder       1                 Taxation Issues (1977-1978)
Folder       2                 Timber Bidding Bill (1977-1978)
Folder       3                 Timber Bidding Bill, Correspondence (1977-1978)
Folder       4                 Forest Industry (1977-1979) 
Folder       5                 Forest Industry Lists (1978)
Folder       6                 Herbicides (1978) 
Folder       7                 Rare II (1978)
Folder       8                 Rare II; Committee Print (1978) 
Folder       9                 Road Standards (1978)
Folder     10                 Timber Bidding Bill, Printed Matter (1978) 
Folder     11                 Timber Supply; Publications (1978) 
Folder     12                 Forest Policy (1978-1979)
Folder     13                 Timber Supply (1978-1979)
Folder     14                 National Forest Investment Fund (1978-1980)
Folder     15                 Reforestation (1979)

Box 13: Forestry

Folder      1                   Miscellaneous (1979-1980)
Folder      2                   Resource Planning Act (1979-1980)
Folder      3                   Rare II; Follow-up (1979-1981)
Folder      4                   Resource Planning Act (1980)



Frank Church worked for the protection of endangered species, from whales to wolves, from salmon to eagles.  He identified the necessity to maintain a stable environment to prevent the extinction of a species.  Church was instrumental in establishing a protective habitat in southwestern Idaho for birds of prey.

Box 13: Fish and Wildlife 
Folder      5              Fish and Wildlife (1976-1977)
Folder      6              Birds of Prey, Reports (1977)
Folder      7              Birds of Prey, Background (1979-1980)
Folder      8              Birds of Prey, Public Opinions (1979-1980)
Folder      9              Predator Control (1980)



Few wildlife issues have been more controversial in the Pacific Northwest than the debate on the effect of dams on migrating salmon.  In the 1970s heated debates ensued over the causes of diminished salmon runs.

Box 13: Salmon and Steelhead

Folder     10          Senator's Position (1961-1977)
Folder     11          "Fishing Problems on the Columbia and the Snake Rivers" (1975)
Folder     12          Agency Correspondence (1975‑1977)

Box 14: Salmon and Steelhead

Folder      1                   Reports (1975)
Folder      2                   Reports (1975-1978)
Folder      3                   Army Corps of Engineer, Correspondence (1976-1977)
Folder      4                    Legislative Flowchart (1977)
Folder      5                    Articles (1975-1979)
Folder      6                    Briefing Material (1979)
Folder      7                    Pacific Coast (nd)


Much of Idaho's public land is grazed upon by domestic livestock.  Public rangeland is important to Idaho's economy but overgrazing destroys the ecological balance necessary for rangeland preservation.  In the 1970s, the Interior Committee worked to find prudent management methods for the benefit of all users.  Senator Church attempted to "reconcile conflicting interests as fairly as possible"  but stated that when a choice must be made between users one must "choose on the side that will promote the largest good."


Box 14: Public Lands: Mining

Folder      8                   Mining (1977)
Folder      9                   Phosphates (1976)
Folder    10                   Zinc (1977-1978)
Folder    11                   "Hard Rock Mining on Public Land" (1977)


Box 14: Public Lands: Range Managment

Folder     12              S.2555 (1975-1976)
Folder     13              Grazing Fees (1976-1979)
Folder     14              Grazing Regulations (1977)
Folder     15              "Rangeland Resources of Idaho" (1977)
Folder     16              Public Grazing Improvement Act (1977-1978)
Folder     17              H.R.10587 (1978)
Folder     18              Range Management (1978-1979)


Box 15: Public Lands: Range Managment

Folder       1            "Managing the Public Rangeland (1979)
Folder       2            Wild Horses (1971-1979)
Folder       3            Wild Horses, Publications (1977-1979)




The last major environmental battle that Frank Church waged in Congress was against the "Sagebrush Rebellion." Instead of pushing for legislative action he used his voice in Idaho and on the Senate floor to stop what opponents of the rebellion called "The Great American Land Grab."  At issue was the transfer of the federal forests and rangelands to the individual states.  The advocates of the Sagebrush Rebellion favored local control and increased use of these lands; opponents favored continued federal management and conservation.  The battle of words between the "lock up boys" and the "give away gang" ignited in 1978 and by 1980 it had become a fiery campaign issue between Senator Church and his challenger for Idaho's seat in the U. S. Senate, Congressman Steve Symms. The facts surrounding land management issues quickly became obscured by emotion and rhetoric.  Documents, letters, and position statements from both sides are found in these files.

Box 15: Sagebrush Rebellion

Folder      4                  Church/Symms Campaign; Environmental Election Issues (1980)
Folder      5                  Intra-Office Memorandums (1979)
Folder      6                  Steve Symms (1979-1980)
Folder      7                  Senatorial Support of "Rebellion" (1979-1980)
Folder      8                   Non-Congressional Support of "Rebellion" (1979)
Folder      9                  Opponents to the "Rebellion" (1980)
Folder    10                  "Maintaining Idaho's Quality of Life"
Folder    11                  "The West Against Itself, Again: A Hard Look  at the Sagebrush Rebellion"
Folder    12                  "Why I Won't Join the Sagebrush Rebellion"
Folder    13                  Public Land Bills (1979-1980)
Folder    14                  Idaho State Constitution (1973)
Folder    15                  Department of Interior (1980)
Folder    16                  America's Public Lands, Published Articles (1979-1980)
Folder    17                  Congressional Research Service (1979-1980)  


The miscellaneous files in this series deal with other subjects that the Interior Committee considered in the 1970s with respect to environmental issues.

Box 16: Interior Committee: Issues

Folder      1                   Alaska Lands (1979-1980)
Folder      2                   Clean Water Act (1977)
Folder      3                   Conservation Fund Act (1963)
Folder      4                   Correspondence (1980)
Folder      5                   Ernie Day (1965)
Folder      6                   Lochsa River (1957)
Folder      7                   National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
Folder      8                   National Environmental Policy Act, Background  (1973)
Folder      9                   National Environmental Policy Act, H.R. 6032 (1975)
Folder    10                   National Environmental Policy Act, Legislative Activity, Experts (1969)
Folder    11                   National Environmental Policy Act, Testimony (1975)
Folder    12                   National Parks (1938)
Folder    13                   Natural Resources, 96th Congress (1978-1980)
Folder    14                   "New Conservation" (1969)
Folder    15                   News Releases and Reprints (1965-1980)
Folder    16                   Outdoor Recreation: Snowmobiling (1976-1980)
Folder    17                   Outfitters and Guides (1977)
Folder    18                   Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (1980)
Folder    19                   Public Land Revenues, Idaho (1957)
Folder    20                   Reservoirs: Burns Creek, Idaho (1957)
Folder    21                   Senatorial Campaign (1980)


The letters in this series were composed by Fred Hutchison for Senator Church.  Their subjects are the environmental issues of the 1970s. Though Mr. Hutchison wrote the letters, they were edited and approved by the Senator before being sent to constituents.  Also in the files are the machine produced letters (ROBOs) for mass mailings that focused on one specific topic.  Again these were never sent without the final approval of the Senator.

Box 17: Correspondence

Folder       1                  Environmental (1976)
Folder       2                  Environmental Protection Agency (1976)
Folder       3                  Forest Service (1975-1979)
Folder       4                  Forest Service; Chamberlain Basin (1976)
Folder       5                  Forest Service; Hells Canyon (1976)
Folder       6                  Forestry (1977)
Folder       7                  Hutchison's Drafts (1978-1979)
Folder       8                  Mining (1977)
Folder       9                  Miscellaneous (1976-1980)
Folder     10                  National Park Service (1975-1976)
Folder     11                  Natural Resources (1976-1977)
Folder     12                  River Of No Return (1976)
Folder     13                  Salmon River Breaks (1976)
Folder     14                  Wilderness (1976)
Folder     15                  Wilderness (1977)
Folder     16                  Wilderness (1978)
Folder     17                  Wilderness (1979)
Folder     18                  Wilderness (1980)
Folder     19                  Wilderness; Idaho Primitive Area (1979)
Folder     20                  Wilderness; Idaho Primitive Area (1980)


These two articles by Mr. Hutchison are reviews of books on environmental history.

Box 17: Writings of Fred Hutchison

Folder     21         The Lands No One Knows: America and the Public  Domain, by T.H. Watkins and
                              Charles S. Watson, Jr. (1975) 

Folder    22         Harvest of a Quiet Eye: The Natural World of John Burroughs, by John Burroughs and
                              Charles Davis (1976)



This series consists of briefs, decisions, and other publications regarding the unsuccessful proposal to build the "High Mountain Sheep Dam" on the middle Snake River.

Box 18: High Mountain Sheep Dam Proposal

United States. Federal Power Commission. Decision: In the Matter of Pacific Northwest Power Company, Project No. 2173. [n.p.]: The Commission. July 23, 1957.

United States. Federal Power Commission. Opinion 311. In the Matter of Pacific Northwest Power Company, Project No. 2173. [n.p.]: The Commission. April 11, 1958.

High Mountain Sheep Dam and Conservation of Salmon and Steelhead. [n.p.]: Pacific Northwest Power Company. March 1959.

Development of the Middle Snake River; High Mountain Sheep Project. rev. ed. [n.p.] Pacific Northwest Power Company. June, 1961.

United States. Federal Power Commission. Decision. Pacific Northwest Power Company Project No. 2243,; Washington Public Power Supply System, Project No. 2273. [Washington, D. C.]: The Commission. October 8, 1962.

United States of America Before the Federal Power Commission, In the Matter of Pacific Northwest Power Company Project No. 2243,; Washington Public Power Supply System, Project No. 2273. Washington, D.C.: [The Commission]. October 8, 1962.

United States. Federal Power Commission. Opinion No. 418; Pacific Northwest Power Company Project No. 2243,; Washington Public Power Supply System, Project No. 2273; Opinion and Granting License. [Washington, D. C.]: The Commission. February 5, 1964.

Evans, Brock. Brief of Sierra Club, Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs, Idaho Alpine Club, In the Matter of the Joint Application for License for Middle Snake River in the States of Oregon and Idaho by the Pacific Northwest Power Co., Project No. 2243, and the Washington Public Power Supply System, Project 2273; Proceedings on Remand from the Supreme Court of the United States. Seattle, Washington: Stern, Gayton, Neubauer & Brucker. October 1970.

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